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BORON,5 B10.811
CAS 7440-42-8
Melting Point C 2100
Boiling Point C 2600
Mohs Hardness @ 20 C 9.3
Elecrical Resistivity µohm cm 4 x 106
Crystal Structure Hex

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Product Description Purity
Cost Per Pound
1-2 3-10 11-25 26-100
BO-101* boron crystalline powder, high purity 98 min -325 mesh inquire
BO-102 boron crystalline granules/pieces 98 min 1-20 mm inquire
BO-130 boron crystalline granules 99-99.99 3-12 mm inquire
BO-140* boron crystalline powder, low carbon 98-99 inquire inquire
BO-201 boron crystalline powder, tech grade 93-94 inquire inquire
BO-230 boron crystalline lump, tech grade 93-94 1"x down inquire
BO-240* boron metal powder, amorphous 99 <1 micron inquire
BO-250* boron metal powder, amorphous 95-97 <1 micron inquire
BO-252 boron metal powder, amorphous 90-92 <1 micron inquire
BO-253 boron metal powder, amorphous 88-90 <1 micron inquire
BO-180 boron sputtering targets 99.9-99.999 inquire
BO-MIL MIL-B-51092 inquire


APPLICATIONS & USES: Boron-Treated Bullet Proof Tee Shirt
Scientists in the US have developed a flexible shirt made of the same material used in tank armor, by combining carbon in the shirt with the third-hardest material on Earth, boron.

"It could even be used to produce lightweight, fuel-efficient cars and aircrafts," Xiaodong Li, from the University of Southern Carolina, wrote in the journal Advanced Materials.

The plain white T-shirts are dipped into a boron solution, then heated in an oven at more than 1000C, which changes the cotton fibers into carbon fibers.

The carbon fibers react with the boron solution and produce boron carbide - the same material used to make bulletproof plates in armored vests. The resulting material was stiffer than the original cotton tee, but still flexible enough to be worn as such.

Posted at 5:15 PM April 05, 2010 by the University of South Carolina. Click Here for complete Article

Posted at 3:40 PM April 12, 2010 by TECHNOLOGY Switched ON.
Click Here for the complete story.

The main use of boron compounds is in the form of Sodium tetraborate pentahydrate (Na2B4O7) for making insulating fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach.

Detergents Formulations and Bleaching Agents
Borax is used in laundry products, mainly as a precursor to bleaches. Specifically, sodium perborate serves as a source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. It is also present in some tooth bleaching formulas.

Glass and Ceramics
Nearly all boron ore extracted from the Earth is destined for refinement into boric acid and sodium tetraborate. In the United States, 70% of the boron is used for the production of glass and ceramics. Borosilicate glass, which is typically 12%-15% B2O3, 80% SiO2, and 2% Al2O3, has a low coefficient of thermal expansion giving it a good resistance to thermal shock. Duran and Pyrex are two major brand names for this glass.

Boron filaments are high-strength, lightweight materials that are used chiefly for advanced aerospace structures as a component of composite materials, as well as limited production consumer and sporting goods such as golf clubs and fishing rods. The fibers can be produced by chemical vapor deposition of boron on a tungsten filament.

Boron fibers and sub-millimeter sized crystalline boron springs are produced by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Translation of the focused laser beam allows to produce even complex helical structures. Such structures show good mechanical properties (elastic modulus 450 GPa, fracture strain 3.7 %, fracture stress 17 GPa) and can be applied as reinforcement of ceramics or in micromechanical systems.

Shielding in Nuclear Reactors
Boron shielding is used as a control for nuclear reactors, taking advantage of its high cross-section for neutron capture.

Semiconductor Industry
Boron is an important technological dopant for such important semiconductors as silicon, germanium and silicon carbide. Having one less valence electron than the host atom, it donates a hole resulting in p-type conductivity. Traditional method of introducing boron into semiconductors is via its atomic diffusion at high temperatures. This process uses either solid (B2O3), liquid (BBr3) or gaseous boron sources (B2H6 or BF3). However, after 1970s, it was mostly replaced by ion implantation, which relies mostly on BF3 as a boron source. Boron trichloride gas is also an important chemical in semiconductor industry, however not for doping but rather for plasma etching of metals and their oxides. Triethylborane is also injected into vapor deposition reactors as a boron source. Examples are the plasma deposition of boron-containing hard carbon films, silicon nitride-boron nitride films, and for doping of diamond film with boron.

Engineering Materials
Boron carbide, a ceramic material which is obtained by decomposing B2O3 with carbon in the electric furnace:

2 B2O3 + 7 C -> B4C + 6 CO

It is used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, and numerous other structural applications. Its ability to absorb neutrons without forming long lived radionuclides makes the material attractive as an absorbent for neutron radiation arising in nuclear power plants. Nuclear applications of boron carbide include shielding, control rod and shut down pellets. Within control rods, boron carbide is often powdered, to increase its surface area.

High-Hardness Compounds
Several boron compounds are known for their extreme hardness and toughness, including

  • Heterodiamond (also called BCN);
  • Boron Nitride This material is isoelectronic to carbon. Similar to carbon, it has both hexagonal (soft graphite-like h-BN) and cubic (hard, diamond-like c-BN) forms. h-BN is used as a high temperature component and lubricant. c-BN, also known under commercial name borazon, is a superior abrasive. Its hardness is only slightly smaller, but chemical stability is superior to that of diamond.
  • Rhenium Diboride can be produced at ambient pressures, but is rather expensive because of rhenium. The hardness of ReB2 exhibits considerable anisotropy because of its hexagonal layered structure. Its value is comparable to that of tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, titanium diboride or zirconium diboride.
  • AlMgB14 + TiB2 composites possess high hardness and wear resistance and are used in either bulk form or as coatings for components exposed to high temperatures and wear loads.
Boron carbide and cubic boron nitride powders are widely used as abrasives. Metal borides are used for coating tools through chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition. Implantation of boron ions into metals and alloys, through ion implantation or ion beam deposition, results in a spectacular increase in surface resistance and microhardness. Laser alloying has also been successfully used for the same purpose. These borides are an alternative to diamond coated tools, and their (treated) surfaces have similar properties to those of the bulk boride.

Niche Uses
  • Boron as Part of Neodymium Magnet (Nd2Fe14B), which is the strongest type of permanent magnet. They are found in a variety of domestic and professional electromechanical and electronic devices, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), various motors and actuators, computer HDDs, CD and DVD players, mobile phones, timer switches, speakers, etc.
  • Starch and Casein-Based Adhesives contain sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Na2B4O7+10 H2O)
  • Anti-Corrosion Systems also contain sodium tetraborate decahydrate.
  • Sodium Borates are used as a flux for soldering silver and gold and with ammonium chloride for welding ferrous metals. They are also fire retarding additives to plastics and rubber articles.
  • Boric Acid (also known as orthoboric acid) H3BO3 is used in the production of textile fiberglass and flat panel displays and in many PVAc and PVOH based adhesives.
  • Boric Acid also has antiseptic, antifungal, and antiviral properties and for this reasons is applied as a water clarifier in swimming pool water treatment. Boric Acid used as an Insecticide, notably against ants, fleas, and cockroaches.
  • Triethylborane is a substance which ignites the JP-7 fuel of the Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet/ramjet engines powering the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird. It was also used to ignite the F-1 Engines on the Saturn V Rocket utilized by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. Triethylborane is suitable for this because of its pyrophoric properties, especially the fact that it burns with very high temperature. Triethylborane is an industrial initiator in radical reactions, where it is effective even at low temperatures.

Research Areas
Magnesium diboride is an important superconducting material with the transition temperature of 39 K. MgB2 wires are produced with the powder-in-tube process and applied in superconducting magnets.
Boron compounds show promise in treating arthritis. Because of its distinctive green flame, amorphous boron is used in pyrotechnic flares. It is also used as a melting point depressant in nickel-chromium braze alloys.

Biological Role
There is a boron-containing natural antibiotic, boromycin, isolated from streptomyces. Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls. Conversely, high soil concentrations of > 1.0 ppm can cause marginal and tip necrosis in leaves as well as poor overall growth performance. Levels as low as 0.8 ppm can cause these same symptoms to appear in plants particularly sensitive to boron in the soil. Nearly all plants, even those somewhat tolerant of boron in the soil, will show at least some symptoms of boron toxicity when boron content in the soil is greater than 1.8 ppm. When this content exceeds 2.0 ppm, few plants will perform well and some may not survive. When boron levels in plant tissue exceed 200 ppm symptoms of boron toxicity are likely to appear.

As an ultratrace element, boron is necessary for the optimal health of rats, although it is necessary in such small amounts that ultrapurified foods and dust filtration of air is necessary to show the effects of boron deficiency, which manifest as poor coat/hair quality. Presumably, boron is necessary to other mammals. No deficiency syndrome in humans has been described. Small amounts of boron occur widely in the diet, and the amounts needed in the diet would, by analogy with rodent studies, be very small. The exact physiological role of boron in the animal kingdom is poorly understood.

Boron occurs in all foods produced from plants. Since 1989 its nutritional value has been argued. It is thought that boron plays several biochemical roles in animals, including humans. The U.S. Department of agriculture conducted an experiment in which postmenopausal women took 3 mg of boron a day. The results showed that supplemental boron reduced excretion of calcium by 44%, and activated estrogen and vitamin D. However, whether these effects were conventionally nutritional, or medicinal, could not be determined. The US National Institutes of Health quotes this source:

Total daily boron intake in normal human diets ranges from 2.1-4.3 mg boron/day.

Analytical Quantification
For determination of boron content in food or materials the colorimetric curcumin method is used. Boron has to be transferred to boric acid or borates and on reaction with curcumin in acidic solution, a red colored boron-chelate complex, rosocyanine, is formed.

CHEMISTRY: Chemically, boron is closer to silicon than to aluminum. Crystalline boron is chemically inert and resistant to attack by boiling hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid. When finely divided, it is attacked slowly by hot concentrated hydrogen peroxide, hot concentrated nitric acid, hot sulfuric acid or hot mixture of sulfuric and chromic acids.

Oxidation of boron depends upon the crystallinity, particle size, purity and temperature. Boron does not react with air at room temperature, but at higher temperatures it burns to form boron trioxide:
4 B + 3 O2 -> 2 B2O3

Boron reacts with sulfur to similarly to give boron sulfide, B2S3

Boron undergoes halogenation to give trihalides, e.g.:
2 B + 3 Br2 -> 2 BBr3

These compounds are however usually made from the oxides.

Chemical Compounds
Boron forms a full range of compounds where boron has the formal oxidation state III. These include oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and halides. A large number of organoboron compounds have also been described, e.g. triphenylboron. In its halides, boron can form compounds whose formal oxidation state is less than three, such as in the highly unstable boron fluorides BF and B2F4.Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997), Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-3365-4

The most distinctive chemical compounds of boron are its hydrides, which adopt structures not commonly seen with other elements. Included in this series are diborane (B2H6), decaborane (B10H14), and the carboranes (e.g., C2B10H12). Like many elements that form highly covalent bonds, oxidation states are often have little meaning in the hydrides of boron, e.g. the polyhedral boranes.

HISTORY: Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thnard in 1808 through the reaction of boric acid and potassium. Davy called the element boracium. Jns Jakob Berzelius identified boron as an element in 1824. The first pure boron was arguably produced by the American chemist W. Weintraub in 1909.

The name boron originates from the Arabic word buraq or the Persian word burah; which are names for the mineral borax.

BACKGROUND: Boron compounds were known thousands of years ago. Borax was known from the deserts of western Tibet, where it received the name of tincal, derived from the Sanskrit. Borax glazes were used in China from AD300, and some tincal even reached the West, where the Arabic alchemist Geber seems to mention it in 700. Marco Polo brought some glazes back to Italy in the 13th century. Agricola, around 1600, reports its use as a flux in metallurgy. In 1777, boric acid was recognized in the hot springs (soffioni) near Florence, Italy, and became known as sal sedativum, with mainly medical uses. The rare mineral is called sassolite, which is found at Sasso, Italy. This was the main source of European borax from 1827 to 1872, at which date American sources replaced it.

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